Associated General Contractors of America v. City of Jacksonville, Florida
In Associated General Contractors of America v. City of Jacksonville, Florida, 508 U.S. 656, 113 S.Ct. 2297, 124 L.Ed.2d 586 (1993), the Supreme Court held that an association of general contractors had standing to challenge an ordinance giving preferential treatment to certain minority-owned businesses in awarding city contracts, even though the association could not prove that one of its members would have been awarded the contract but for the challenged ordinance. See id. at 664-69, 113 S.Ct. 2297.
Relying on its precedents, the Court stated:
When the government erects a barrier that makes it more difficult for members of one group to obtain a benefit than it is for members of another group, a member of the former group seeking to challenge the barrier need not allege that he would have obtained the benefit but for the barrier in order to establish standing. The "injury in fact" in an equal protection case of this variety is the denial of equal treatment resulting from the imposition of the barrier, not the ultimate inability to obtain the benefit. (Id. at 666, 113 S.Ct. 2297.)