Alter Ego Liability California

In Associated Vendors, Inc. v. Oakland Meat Co., Inc. (1962) 210 Cal.App.2d 825, 838-840, the court listed a variety of factors pertinent to a determination of alter ego liability: Commingling of funds and other assets; (1) Failure to maintain minutes or adequate corporate records; (2) Sole ownership of all of the stock of a corporation by one individual or members of a family; (3) Holding out by an individual that he or she is personally liable for the debts of the corporation; (4) Confusion of the records of separate entities; (5) Failure to obtain authority to issue stock or to subscribe to or issue the same; (6) Identical equitable ownership in two entities; (7) Failure to segregate funds of separate entities; (8) Treatment by an individual of the assets of the corporation as his or her own; (9) Unauthorized diversion of corporate funds or assets to other than corporate uses; Use of the same office or business location; employment of the same employees and/or attorney; failure to adequately capitalize a corporation; total absence of corporate assets; (10) Use of the corporation as a mere shell, instrumentality, or conduit for a single venture or the business of an individual or another corporation; (11) Concealment and misrepresentation of the responsible ownership; (12) Disregard of legal formalities and the failure to maintain arm's length relationship among related entities; use of corporate entity to procure labor, services, or merchandize for another person or entity; (13) Diversion of assets from a corporation by or to a stockholder or other person or entity to the detriment of creditors or the manipulation of assets and liabilities between entities; (14) Contracting with another with intent to avoid performance by use of a corporate entity as a shield against personal liability or use of a corporation as a subterfuge of illegal transactions; (15) Formation and use of a corporation to transfer to it the existing liability of another person or entity.