Personal Liability for Forcible Ejection of An African-American Person from a Bus

In Peck v. Cooper, 112 Ill. 192 (1884), the plaintiff, an African-American, was forcibly ejected from a bus by its driver. The bus was operated by a company of which the defendant was president. The supreme court upheld the finding that the defendant was individually liable for the plaintiff's injuries because the evidence showed that the defendant "gave the general order" that drivers of the company were "to exclude colored persons" from the buses. Peck, 112 Ill. at 194.