Alm v. Aluminum Co. of Am
In Alm v. Aluminum Co. of Am., 717 S.W.2d 588, 591-92 (Tex. 1986), the Texas Supreme Court first acknowledged the "learned intermediary" doctrine
In that case, Alm was injured when a bottle cap exploded off of a 7-Up bottle, hitting him in the face and injuring his eye. Id. at 590.
Aluminum Company of America ("Alcoa") had manufactured a bottle-capping machine and sold it to JFW Enterprises ("JFW"), who used the machine to cap soda bottles. Id. at 589.
Alcoa warned JFW that a blow-off could occur if the closure was improper or the glassware was not to specification, but it did not warn of personal injuries, and JFW did not warn consumers about the possibility of injuries. Id. at 593. Alm sued Alcoa, and Alcoa argued that it had relied on JFW to warn the ultimate consumers. Id. at 591.