What Are the Elements of Civil Conspiracy In Texas ?

An actionable civil conspiracy is a combination by two or more persons to accomplish an unlawful purpose or to accomplish a lawful purpose by unlawful means. See: (1)Massey v. Armco Steel Co., 652 S.W.2d 932, 934 (Tex. 1983) (2) Operation Rescue-Nat'l v. Planned Parenthood of Houston & S.E. Tex., Inc., 975 S.W.2d 546, 553 (Tex. 1998). The essential elements of a conspiracy are: (1) two or more persons; (2) an object to be accomplished; (3) a meeting of minds on the object or course of action; (4) one or more unlawful, overt acts; (5) damages as the proximate result. See Id. A specific intent to agree to accomplish the unlawful purpose or to accomplish the lawful purpose by unlawful means is also required. See Triplex Communications, Inc. v. Riley, 900 S.W.2d 716, 719 (Tex. 1995).