Federal Courts Landmark Cases on Establishing General Jurisdiction

The "standard for establishing general jurisdiction is 'fairly high,' Brand v. Menlove Dodge, 796 F.2d 1070, 1073 (9th Cir. 1986), and requires that the defendant's contacts be of the sort that approximate physical presence. See Gates Learjet Corp. v. Jensen, 743 F.2d 1325, 1331 (9th Cir. 1984). Factors to be taken into consideration are whether the defendant makes sales, solicits or engages in business in the state, serves the state's markets, designates an agent for service of process, holds a license, or is incorporated there." (Bancroft & Masters, Inc. v. Augusta Nat. Inc. (9th Cir. 2000) 223 F.3d 1082, 1086, italics added, citing Hirsch v. Blue Cross, Blue Shield of Kansas City (9th Cir. 1986) 800 F.2d 1474, 1478 (Hirsch); see, e.g., Gates Learjet Corp. v. Jensen (9th Cir. 1984) 743 F.2d 1325, 1331 making telephone calls and sending telexes and letters to Tucson do not demonstrate sufficient activity to support a finding of general jurisdiction in Arizona.)