Verizon Online Servs. Inc. v. Ralsky

In Verizon Online Servs. Inc. v. Ralsky, 203 F. Supp. 2d 601, 622-23 (E.D. Va. 2001), the court considered the defendants' argument that they had not purposefully availed themselves of the laws of Virginia because they did not know, or have any way of knowing, that they were sending commercial emails to Virginia residents or through a server located in Virginia. See id. at 612. In a carefully reasoned opinion, the court found that the emails were "knowing and repeated commercial transmissions" that the defendants knew would be routed through Verizon's servers in Virginia because the defendants sent their emails to Verizon-based domain names. See id. at 617-18 .