Almeida-Sanchez v. United States
In Almeida-Sanchez v. United States, 413 U.S. 266 (1973), the Supreme Court rejected the Government's contention that the Nation's strong interest in controlling immigration and the practical difficulties of policing the Mexican border combined to justify dispensing with both warrant and probable cause for vehicle searches by roving patrols near the border.
The facts did not require us to decide whether the same rule would apply to traffic checkpoints, which differ from roving patrols in several important respects. 413 U.S., at 273; id., at 276 (POWELL, J., concurring).
In Almeida-Sanchez v. United States, the officer removed the back seat cushion because there were reports that aliens had been found seated upright behind seats from which the springs had been removed. Id., at 286 (WHITE, J., dissenting).