Andes v. Ely

In Andes v. Ely, 158 U.S. 312 (1895), the doctrine was affirmed that where an officer is charged by law with the duty to decide certain facts, his decision thereon is conclusive and takes the form of a judgment, only to be reviewed by a higher court. At page 324 the court said: "Whether the various steps were taken which in this particular case justified the issue of the bonds, was a question of fact; and when the bonds on their face recite that those steps have been taken it is the settled rule of this court that in an action brought by a bona fide holder the municipality is estopped from showing the contrary."