Cary v. Curtis (1845)

In Cary v. Curtis (1845) 44 U.S. 236, an action was brought in the Circuit Court to recover money paid to Curtis, as collector of the port of New York, for duties. The Supreme Court stated that "the judicial power of the United States, although it has its origin in the Constitution, is (except in enumerated instances, applicable exclusively to this court) dependent for its distribution and organization, and for the modes of its exercise, entirely upon the action of Congress, who possess the sole power of creating the tribunals (inferior to the Supreme Court) for the exercise of the judicial power, and of investing them with jurisdiction either limited, concurrent, or exclusive, and of withholding jurisdiction from them in the exact degrees and character which to Congress may seem proper for the public good."