Cement Manufacturers Protective Ass'n v. United States

In Cement Manufacturers Protective Ass'n v. United States, 268 U.S. 588, 605, 45 S.Ct. 586, 592, 69 L.Ed. 1104 (1925), the Court said: "We realize also that uniformity of price may be the result of agreement or understanding, and that an artificial price level not related to the supply and demand of a given commodity may be evidence from which such agreement or understanding or some concerted action of sellers operating to restrain commerce may be inferred. But here the government does not rely upon agreement or understanding, and this record wholly fails to establish, either directly or by inference, any concerted action other than that involved in the gathering and dissemination of pertinent information with respect to the sale and distribution of cement to which we have referred, and it fails to show any effect on price and production except such as would naturally flow from the dissemination of that information in the trade and its natural influence on individual action."