Intrusion on Privacy Because of Special Needs Cases

The Supreme Court in Skinner, Von Raab, Vernonia, and also in New Jersey v. T. L. O. (1985) 469 U.S. 325 [105 S. Ct. 733, 83 L. Ed. 2d 720], concluded that the usual requirements of a judicial warrant issued upon probable cause were not applicable because the intrusion on privacy interests in those cases was less than that involved in most criminal cases and the governmental interest involved "special needs beyond the normal need for law enforcement." In Michigan Dept. of State Police v. Sitz (1990) 496 U.S. 444 [110 S. Ct. 2481, 110 L. Ed. 2d 412], for example, the court upheld a sobriety checkpoint program that required authorities to stop all vehicles passing through a checkpoint and briefly to examine their drivers for signs of intoxication.