What Is the ''Younger Abstention'' Doctrine ?

Younger generally requires federal courts to abstain from taking jurisdiction over federal constitutional claims that involve or call into question ongoing state proceedings. Younger, 401 U.S. 37, 43-44, 91 S.Ct. 746, 27 L.Ed.2d 669 (1971). Although the Younger abstention doctrine was born in the context of state criminal proceedings, it now applies with equal force to state administrative proceedings. Ohio Civil Rights Comm'n v. Dayton Christian Schs., Inc., 477 U.S. 619, 627, 106 S.Ct. 2718, 91 L.Ed.2d 512 (1986). This doctrine of federal abstention rests foursquare on the notion that, in the ordinary course, "a state proceeding provides an adequate forum for the vindication of federal constitutional rights." Cullen, 18 F.3d at 103 (citing Kugler v. Helfant, 421 U.S. 117, 124, 95 S.Ct. 1524, 44 L.Ed.2d 15 (1975)). Therefore, giving the respect to our co-equal sovereigns that principles of "Our Federalism" demand, we generally prohibit federal courts from intervening in such matters. Younger, 401 U.S. at 44, 91 S.Ct. 746; see also Cullen, 18 F.3d at 103. Younger abstention is required when three conditions are met: (1) there is an ongoing state proceeding; (2) an important state interest is implicated in that proceeding; (3) the state proceeding affords the federal plaintiff an adequate opportunity for judicial review of the federal constitutional claims. Grieve v. Tamerin, 269 F.3d 149, 152 (2d Cir.2001). Despite the strong policy in favor of abstention, a federal court may nevertheless intervene in a state proceeding upon a showing of "bad faith, harassment or any other unusual circumstance that would call for equitable relief." Younger, 401 U.S. at 54, 91 S.Ct. 746. However, a plaintiff who seeks to head off Younger abstention bears the burden of establishing that one of the exceptions applies. See Kirschner v. Klemons, 225 F.3d 227, 235-36 (2d Cir.2000).